A Spy Among Friends: Kim Philby and the Great Betrayal

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Kennedy's promise to "bear any burden," it seemed, was no empty promise; it opened the door for a wide variety of never-ending international commitments. As for the T34, a great tank whose suspension system was designed by and offered to the Americans but rejected. Domrin -- The dilemmas of destalinisation: a social and cultural history of reform in the Khrushchev era / edited by Polly Jones -- News media and power in Russia / Olessia Koltsova -- Post-Soviet civil society: democratization in Russia and the Baltic States / Anders Uhlin -- The collapse of Communist power in Poland / Jacqueline Hayden -- Television, democracy and elections in Russia / Sarah Oates -- Russian constitutionalism: historical and contemporary development / Andrey N.

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Vodka Tears and Lenin's Angel : A Journalist on the Road in

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Sometimes, people with disabilities were trained for unskilled piecework at home. Press and TV is a regular target for criticism and condemnation from media freedom watchdogs. The Malta Summit is therefore considered to be the final event of the Cold War. To learn more about what the bombers' origin say about the Islamic State these days, we turn now to Andrew Weiss who specializes in Russia and Eurasia at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and who joins us via Skype.

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The Soviet Union on the Brink: An Inside Look at

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Dmitri Titoff, a participant in the Heritage Foundation Young Leaders Program, provided invaluable assistance in the production of this paper. HAVANA—It is still among the tallest, most sinister-looking structures in the Caribbean, but the Soviet-era tower that looms above the Russian Embassy in Cuba isn’t quite what it used to be. We are holding negotiations but we should be ready to liberate our territories any time from the invaders by military means.” [7] The same day Daniel Stein, senior assistant to the U.

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Memoirs of a Revolutionist: The Autobiography of Peter

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What happened after the Soviet Union ended in 1991? Late 1950s - China falls out with the Soviet Union over Moscow's policy of peaceful coexistence with the West. 1960 - Soviet Union shoots down US spy plane U-2 over Soviet territory. 1961 - Yuri Gagarin makes the first manned orbital flight. 1962 - Cuban missile crisis erupts over presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba. 1963 - Soviet Union joins the US and Britain in signing a treaty banning atmospheric nuclear tests; US-Soviet "hot line" set up. 1964 - Khrushchev is replaced as first secretary of the Communist Party by Leonid Brezhnev; Aleksey Kosygin becomes prime minister. 1968 - Soviet and Warsaw Pact troops invade Czechoslovakia to stem a trend towards liberalisation; "Brezhnev doctrine" enunciated, giving communist countries the right to intervene in other communist states whose policies threatened the international communist movement. 1969 - Soviet and Chinese troops clash across the border. 1972 - Soviet Union and US sign SALT-1 arms control agreement, heralding the start of detente. 1974 - Soviet Union agrees to ease its emigration policy in return for most-favoured-nation trade status with the US. 1977 - Brezhnev elected president under new constitution. 1979 - Soviet Union and US sign SALT-2 agreement; Soviet troops invade Afghanistan, formally ending the period of detente with the West. 1980 - Kosygin is replaced as prime minister by Nikolay Tikhonov; Kosygin dies. 1982 - Brezhnev dies and is replaced by KGB chief Yuri Andropov. 1984 - Andropov dies and is replaced by Konstantin Chernenko. 1985 - Chernenko dies and is replaced by Mikhail Gorbachev as general secretary of the Communist Party; Andrey Gromyko becomes president.

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Learning to Labour in Post-Soviet Russia: Vocational youth

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I'll never forget I wrote a paper for him comparing Judaism with Marxism as philosophies of life. In March 1921, during a related conflict with Poland, the Peace of Riga was signed and split disputed territories in Belarus and Ukraine between the Republic of Poland and Soviet Russia. Again according to Conquest, a million political prisoners were executed between 1937 and 1939, and another 2 million died of hunger. Stalin ordered the Czech Communists to arrest the leading figures of the democratic parties.

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The Collapse of the Soviet Union: End of an Empire

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Famines occurred causing millions of deaths and surviving kulaks were politically persecuted and many sent to Gulags to do forced labour. A list of books, broken down according to historical era, can be found below the author information. On the contrary, they will be grateful, if the criticism is accurate and the reasons are correctly indicated. In this case, it was the Afghan people that bore the preponderance of suffering at somewhere between one and two million dead in the decade that followed the Soviet intervention.

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The Invention of Russia: From Gorbachev's Freedom to Putin's

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The committee asked the city transport department and the road maintenance fund to supervise localities in the implementation, management and effective use of the collected fee source. Salisbury, Black Night, White Snow: Russia's Revolutions, 1905-1917 (1978), p. 479-480.; Dmitri Volkogonov, Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy (New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991), pp. 27-28, 32.; P. At the start of the November 1999 Organization for Security Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Summit Meeting in Istanbul, Turkey, President Clinton met with President Yeltsin to discuss arms control, Chechnya, and events in Europe.

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Territories, Boundaries and Consciousness: The Changing

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During the New Economic Policy (NP) period, and in glaring contradiction with the goal and intention of the party, unemployment was widespread, and those women who could find work often faced the unsolved question of providing for children and maintaining the household. The crisis in the Caucasus highlights both the fragility of the North Atlantic Alliance and the need for NATO expansion. The Operation Barbarossa (the code name for Germany’s invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II) was a gigantic military operation that consumed millions of lives creating massive waves of psycho trauma among the people.

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Rediscovering Russia in Asia: Siberia and the Russian Far

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During the Russian Civil War, the Bolsheviks had to deal with struggles for independence in regions that it had given up under the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (which the regime immediately repudiated after Germany's defeat by the Allies in November 1918). I would go to bed at night and take my transistor radio and put it under my pillow. Bozzo (ed.), Exporting Conflict: International Transfers of Conventional Arms, Cultura Nuova,Florence, 1991, pp.135-142 'Military Cuts and Conversion in the Defence Industry', Soviet Economy, vol.7, no.2, 1991, pp.121-142 'Soviet Military has a Finger in Every Pie', Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, December 1990, pp.22-25 'The Soviet Defence Industry and Conversion', The RUSI Journal, Autumn 1990, pp. 51-56 'The Soviet defence industry and conversion: the regional dimension' in L.

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Russia's Transition to Democracy: An Internal Political

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The concept of a superpower was a product of the Cold War and the nuclear age. Furthermore, intense discontent of the population due to the oil crisis and economic downturn, as well as a lack of military resources for internal control, made it virtually impossible to hold on to power. At the Moscow Summit of May 1972, Brezhnev and President Richard M. In most cases the whole of the wages he earned from his labour belonged to the prisoner, who in this respect was treated the same as any other worker.

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